Hiving and Care of Packaged Bees
By Khalil Hamdan
Apeldoorn, The Netherlands
of bees ready for hiving
”Photo courtesy of
Package bees are sold and dispatched in a
wooden box with a wire screen on the front and rear sides for ventilation.
The package usually contains:
- 1 or 1.5 kilogram of live bees without
brood or combs. A one-kilogram package contains approximately 8,000 bees,
and a 1.5 kilogram package contains 12,000 bees.
- Caged young mated queen
- A can feeder with a few small holes in
the bottom suspending from the top of the box, containing about one liter of
sugar syrup for the bees to feed on while in transit and until they are
hived in their new hive.
The package of bees usually contains bees
shaken from two or more colonies, and the queen supplied with the package is
bred from selected colonies to be sent in the package. The queen is kept in
a separate small wooden or plastic cage with one screened side and candy
release plug. The caged queen in the package is well protected and fed
through the screen during transportation, and usually accepted by the bees
within 12 – 24 hours.
The bees free the queen to leave the cage
by eating the sugar candy blocking the exit hole of the cage.
in a cage
Candy closed with a cork
Photo courtesy of Saul Creek Apiary
Photo courtesy of Saul
Packaged bees are perishable and mailed out
the day they are packaged.
Package bees are purchased to start new
beehives or to strengthen weak colonies and to replace colonies died in
winter. Package bees should be ordered early so that the bees can arrive
early in spring and take advantage of the many fruit trees and plants that
bloom in the spring. The best time to have the packaged bees is 6 to 8 weeks
before nectar flow begins.
Care of package bees on
Packages bees should be picked the day they
arrive as soon as possible. They should be placed in a cool or dark place
with a temperature about 18 to 21 degrees Celsius. Do not keep them in the
sun or heat. Package bees die quickly if they are stored where the
temperature is above 21°C or left
standing in the sun for too long. Packages bees should be fed immediately
upon arrival by spraying sugar syrup made of 1 part sugar to 1 part water
through the screened sides of the package using a hand sprayer. Although
hiving can be delayed for up to 48 hours, it is important to put them in
their new hives as soon as possible. If they can’t be hived in that day, the
bees should be sprayed with sugar syrup in the morning and night.
Hiving Bee Packages
A one-story hive with 10 frames with fitted
foundation must be ready and set up in the apiary or in good location just
before the hiving of bees. The bees can be hived on new foundation or drawn
combs or a mixture of both. It is preferable to be hived on drawn combs so
the bees will save energy and time in wax comb building. It is recommended
to use at least two drawn combs so the queen can start laying eggs. The
drawn combs are put in the center of the hive. A package hived on drawn
combs with combs of honey and pollen will build up faster.
Package bees can be hived at any time of
the day, but late in the day is preferable. This helps the bees to settle
down and not to drift to other hives.
To establish a new hive from packaged bees,
wear protective clothing and veil and follow the following steps:
Open the empty hive, and remove four frames from one
side to allow space for the bee package. Start with nine frames when the
package is hived and add the tenth frame one week later. If using undrawn
foundation, slightly sprinkle both sides of the foundation with sugar syrup.
This encourages the bees to build comb out on new foundation.
Spray the bees on both screen sides of the package
with sugar syrup before opening the package box. This inhibits the bees from
flying and become much quieter and easier to install. Do not overspray.
Spraying a package of bees with sugar syrup
Photo courtesy of
Remove the wooden lid that covers the feeder can from
the top of the package and sharply bang the package on the ground to shake
all the bees clustering around the syrup can and the queen cage to the
bottom of the box. This allows the removal of the feeder can without
out the feeder can from the package box and the queen cage. Put the lid on
the top of the package temporarily to prevent the bees from coming out of
the opening where the can feeder was removed.
Removal of can feeder
courtesy of honeybeesonline.com
Check the queen to make sure she is alive. Remove the
cork or any cover blocking the candy end of the queen cage and poke a hole
through the candy with a nail or a matchstick, being careful not to impale
the queen. The hole should be large enough so the bees can release the queen
within 24- 48 hours, but not so large that the queen can get out
Removing the cork
covering the candy plug
Photo courtesy of honeybeesonline.com
Place the queen cage vertically between two frames in
the middle of the hive, with the candy end up. The screen on the queen cage
should face either the right or the left of the hive and not the comb. Bees
should have access to the screen face of the queen’s cage so that they can
feed her and receive her scent. Other way to insert the cage is to place it
tightly between the top bars of two combs, screen face down. The bees will
eat through the candy plug and free the queen.
Queen cage between two frames
Photo by Wendy van Dyk Evans, Bugwood.org
Remove the lid from the hole in the top of the
package and hold the package box, topside down over the hive and shake the
bees vigorously into the empty space left by removing the four frames.
Continue shaking until it is empty.
The bees are shaken into the hive
Photo by Wendy van Dyk Evans, Bugwood.org
Replace the previously 4 frames back into the hive
gently to avoid injuring the bees. Some beekeepers shake out the bees
without the removal of any frames from the hive. Some bees will remain in
the package box. Place the package box on the ground in front of the hive
with the opening toward the entrance, so any remaining bees can move into
their new hive.
Gently place the inner cover on the hive so that not
to crush any bees. In doing this you may have to wait for the bees to go
down into the hive for a short time.
Set up the feeder can, feeding holes down over the
hole in the inner cover, so that the bees have a food source to stimulate
Add an empty hive body over the inner cover and cover
the hive with the outer cover.
Having process is now complete. By the
following day the bees will make short orientation flights and become
accustomed to their new home.
After hiving the bees the colony should not
be disturbed for a week except for refilling the feeder with syrup if
Managing colonies of
The success of a package colony depends on
the availability of food (nectar and pollen) in the area, and on the queen
condition. A colony may fail to build up and establish itself in the lack of
food, and if the queen is failing.
It is most important to give plenty of
sugar syrup to assist the colony to develop and to check regularly the
presence and performance of the queen. Failures to do this will setback the
Feed the bees immediately upon hiving with
sugar syrup 1:1. When undrawn foundation are used, bees are fed on ample
syrup using about 10-12 kg of sugar (20 liter of syrup) per hive to draw two
boxes of foundation. The bees need at least four kilograms of syrup for
every kilogram of wax they build.
Continue feeding until all foundation
frames in the hive have been drawn into comb and the bees stop consuming the
syrup and begin to store honey. Several types of feeders are used in feeding
sugar syrup. These are:
- The frame feeder, used inside the hive
Miller feeder, used on the top of the hive
Boardman entrance feeder, which is used at the
entrance and allows checking and refilling the syrup without opening the
Pail feeder, which can be inverted over the
hole of the inner cover.
The easiest way is to invert a plastic jar
or can over the hole in the inner cover. This can be made by making 10-15
small holes in the lid of the jar or can with a very small nail to prevent
leakage of the syrup, with the sharp edges point inward.
Aft 5-7 days of hiving, the colony is
checked to see that the queen is released from the cage and is laying eggs.
If the queen is not out of her cage, release her and remove the empty cage.
Check again after a week or two for eggs in the cells and capped brood.
Shortage of brood, eggs and larvae indicates the queen is failing or absent.
If the brood is patchy or unsatisfactory, a new queen should be introduced
or the colony is united with another colony.
When the bees have drawn 8 foundation
frames in the first hive body, a second hive body is added to provide space
for expansion. A frame or two of brood and a frame of honey are moved into
the second hive body to encourage bees to move up. Add frames as needed.
If the package bees have started with drawn
combs, the second hive body of frames may be added four weeks after hiving
for the bees to store honey in.